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Guinea worm disease is close to being eradicated – how was this progress achieved?

Guinea worm disease is close to being eradicated – how was this progress achieved?
  • Imtiaz, R., Hopkins, D. R., & Ruiz-Tiben, E. (1990). Permanent disability from dracunculiasis. The Lancet, 336(8715), 630. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(90)93427-Q

  • Biswas, G., Sankara, D. P., Agua-Agum, J., & Maiga, A. (2013). Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): eradication without a drug or a vaccine. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368(1623), 20120146. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0146Sankara, D.P., Korkor, A.S., Agua-Agum, J., Biswas, G. (2016). Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease). In: Gyapong, J., Boatin, B. (eds) Neglected Tropical Diseases – Sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected Tropical Diseases. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25471-5_3

  • Watts, S. (1998). An ancient scourge: the end of Dracunculiasis in Egypt. Social Science & Medicine, 46(7), 811–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(97)00213-X

  • Tayeh, A., Cairncross, S., & Cox, F. E. (2017). Guinea worm: from Robert Leiper to eradication. Parasitology, 144(12), 1643-1648.

  • Reddy, C. R. R. M., Narasaiah, I. L., & Parvathi, G. (1969). Epidemiological studies on guinea-worm infection. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 40(4), 521. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2556107/pdf/bullwho00225-0041.pdf

  • Molyneux, D., & Sankara, D. P. (2017). Guinea worm eradication: Progress and challenges—should we beware of the dog?. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(4), e0005495.

  • Hopkins, D. R., & Ruiz-Tiben, E. (2011). Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): case study of the effort to eradicate guinea worm. https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/news/health_publications/selendy-waterandsanitationrelateddiseases-chapt10.pdf
    Cleveland, C. A., Garrett, K. B., Box, E. K., Eure, Z., Majewska, A. A., Wilson, J. A., & Yabsley, M. J. (2020). Cooking copepods: The survival of cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) in simulated provisioned water containers and implications for the Guinea Worm Eradication Program in Chad, Africa. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 95, 216-220.

  • In dry climates, the disease is more common in rainy seasons when water accumulates in ponds and wells. In wet climates, the disease is more common in dry seasons when water is drying up and becoming stagnant.
    Muller, R. (1979). Guinea worm disease: epidemiology, control, and treatment. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 57(5), 683.

  • Hopkins, D. R., Ruiz-Tiben, E., Eberhard, M. L., Weiss, A., Withers, P. C., Roy, S. L., & Sienko, D. G. (2018). Dracunculiasis Eradication: Are We There Yet?. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 99(2), 388–395. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0204

  • Hopkins, D. R., & Ruiz-Tiben, E. (2011). Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): case study of the effort to eradicate guinea worm. https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/news/health_publications/selendy-waterandsanitationrelateddiseases-chapt10.pdf

  • They are certified by the International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication (ICCDE), which was set up in 1995.
    The International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication – About us. (n.d.). World Health Organization. Retrieved June 3, 2022, from https://www.who.int/groups/international-commission-for-the-certification-of-dracunculiasis-eradication/about

  • Molyneux, D., & Sankara, D. P. (2017). Guinea worm eradication: Progress and challenges—should we beware of the dog?. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(4), e0005495.
    Hopkins, D. R., Ruiz-Tiben, E., Eberhard, M. L., Weiss, A., Withers, P. C., Roy, S. L., & Sienko, D. G. (2018). Dracunculiasis Eradication: Are We There Yet? The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 99(2), 388–395. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0204

  • Kelly-Hope, L. A., & Molyneux, D. H. (2021). Quantifying conflict zones as a challenge to certification of Guinea worm eradication in Africa: a new analytical approach. BMJ open, 11(8), e049732.
    In some cases, the eradication effort has worked around conflicts or addressed them. For example, in 1995, former US president Jimmy Carter was involved in negotiating a ceasefire during the Second Sudanese Civil War, to allow healthcare workers to begin efforts to eradicate guinea worm disease in the region.
    Hopkins, D. R., & Ruiz-Tiben, E. (2011). Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): case study of the effort to eradicate guinea worm. https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/news/health_publications/selendy-waterandsanitationrelateddiseases-chapt10.pdf

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